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the Holy Roman Church and the Holy Roman Empire are one and the same thing, in two aspects; and Catholicism, the principle of the universal Christian society, is also Romanism; that is, rests upon Rome as the origin and type of its universality; manifesting itself in a mystic dualism which corresponds to the two natures of its Founder. As divine and eternal, its head is the Pope, to whom souls have been entrusted; as human and temporal, the Emperor, commissioned to rule men’s bodies and acts.

-James Viscount Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire Theory of the Medieval Empire

One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church

One, Holy, Catholic, and Roman Empire